Kahuripan Kingdom (Part 1)

Kahuripan is a name used by a kingdom in East Java built by Airlangga in 1009. This kingdom was built to proceed Medang Kingdom which fell down in 1006.

Airlangga is the founder of Kahuripan Kingdom, ruled in 1009-1042 with title Abhiseka Sri Maharaja Rakai Halu Sri Dharmawangsa Airlangga Anantawikramottunggadewa.

Airlangga means jumping water and he was born in 990. Her mother was Mahendradatta, a princess of Isyana Clan from Medang Kingdom. His father was Udayana, king of Bedahulu from Warmadewa klan. Airlangga has 2 sisters Marakata (became Bali king after their father died) and Anak Wungsu (became the next king after Marakata died).

He was mentioned as someone who ordered Mpu Kanwa to write Kakawin Arjunawiwaha. He was raised in Watugaluh kingdom (Medang Kingdom) ruled by Dharmawangsa. In that period Medang became a strong kingdom, and even conquered Bali and established colony in Western of Kalimantan, and attacked Sriwijaya.

In 1066. when Airlangga was 16 years.Sriwijaya revenge Medang.Wurawari (Sriwijaya Allies) burnt Watugaluh palace, Dharmawangsa and royal families died in in the assault. But Airlangga could escape to forest.

According to Pucangan inscription, in 1006 Airlangga married to daughter of his uncle, Dharmawangsa Teguh (brother of Mahendradatta) in Watan, capital of Medang. Suddenly Watan was attacked by King Wurawari from Lwaram, the ally of Sriwijaya.  In that assault Dhawmawangsa Teguh died, while Airlangga could escape to mountain forest  (wanagiri) accompanied by his man, Mpu Narotama. He was 16 and he started his life as an ascetic. One of site used by Airlangga in his escape is Sendang made, Kudu, Jombang, East Java.

The kingdom built by Airlangga is usually known as Kahuripan, while in fact, Kahuripan was just one of capital’s kingdom led by Airlangga. After 3 years in forest, He was visited by his people asking him to return to Medang Kingdom. As Watan was destroyed, Airlangga built a new capital, Watan Mas nearby Gunung Penanggungan. This city is written in Cane Inscription (1021)

According to Terep Inscription (1032), Watan Mas seized by enemy, that Airlangga ran to patakan village. According to Kamalagyan inscription (1037), the capital was moved to kahuripan (currently Sidoarjo). According to Pamwatan (1042), the capital then moved to Daha (currently Kediri). This info is accordance with Serat Calon Arang that mentioned Airlangga as the king of Daha. Negarakertagama even mention Airlangga is the king of Panjalu, and Daha as the capital.

When Airlangga became king in 1009, his kingdom constituted of Sidoarjo and pasuruan, as after the death of Dharmawangsa Teguh, there are many smaller kingdoms extricated. Airlangga then create power to re-take over Isyana clan in Java.

to be continued