Rusa Bawean, Axis kuhlii, Endemic Deer in Bawean Island, East Java, Indonesia

There are Indonesian specific deers,  Cerfus temurensis, Cerfus unicalor, Muntiakus Muntjak, Axsis Axsis and Axis Kuhlii. They live in Sumatera, Java, Bali, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara and Papua.

Bawean deer or Axis Kuhlii was firstly identified by Salomon Müller in 1836 as Cervus Kuhlii. Here is the classification of Bawean deer:
Phylum: Chordata

Other names of Bawean deer are Menjangan Bawean [Javanese]Rusa bawean [Indonesia] Uncal Bawean [Sundanese] Cerf-conchon de l’ile Bawean (French) Cerf de Bawean (French) Kuhhirsch, Bawean-Schweinshirsch, Bawean Hirsch (German) Ciervo de KuhlCiervo porquerizo de Kuhl (Spanish)

Bawean deer is an endemic species in Bawean Island, a small island located on the north of Java island. Two populations exists on the island, one on a mountain range and the other around Mt Bulu. This species is the most restricted range of any extant deer species.

According to IUCN in 2009, this deer is endangered. The wild population was only 250 individuals in 2008. The threat of the population is habitat loss as forest converted to plantation and farms, and predators. The plant Eupatorium odoratummay also reduce habitat quality. Hunting the deer also pressure the population for hundred years and it was stopped in 1977.

Bawean deer size is medium with tall from 60 to 70 cm, and length from 105 to 115 cm and weight more or less 50 kg. Its tail is brown and the length ranges round 20 cm. It has tusk on its lower jaw and the color of the fur is brown except in its neck. Its eye is encircled with bright white color. Its shoulder is lower than the back and for young deer they have dots and disappear after they grow up. Adult male bawean deer has pair of 3 branches  horn while the young one has no branches.

Male is in breeding condition all year long. Female usually have one fawn and twin fawn is very rare. Most of births are in February to June. Their interval birth is 9 months. In the wild female can raise more than one fawn in a year. Fawns lose their spots very quickly.

Bawean deer habitat is in forest as it provide shelter to sleep and rest. Bawean deer has no natural predators, only pyhtons, but phyton only gives small impact on bawean deer habitat. Perhaps that pigs and macaques kill deer fawns. According to research, Bawean deer diet are 39 plant species, forbs and grasses. Those diets are available throughout the year in Bawean. Bawean deer often enter farm land nearby forest at night and feed young leave of casava or corn.

Bawean deer usually live in solitary. They are primarily nocturnal and emerging after 6 pm. They return to forest when sunrise comes. Bawean deer communicate extensively with vocalizations with short barks. Their sound is audible from 100 meters distance.