Though Madura Island is separated from Java Island, Javanese culture has big influence in Madurese. That is why Madurese culture is classified in Javanese culture, that style of Madurese costume similar to Javanese. Generally, Madurese recognize costume based on age, sex, social status, occassion, for daily or for ceremonial use.
Most people recognize that Madurese outfit is loose black blouse with white and red strip shirt, headband and sarung. Those set of outfit is called as pesa’an. This outfit is worn for formal or daily occasions. Small sellers on street wear pesa’an and loose shirt, matched with sarong. Fishermen usually only wear loose trousers with t shirt. Courage is a typical character of Madurese. Strip of red, white and black on their shirts show firm character and courage in facing whatever before them.
Loose clothes show freedom and openness of Madurese. The simplicity of the clothes show the humbleness of Madurese. Madurese also wear sarong and big leather belt with pocket to save money to complete the costume.
If pesa’an is proleratiat costume, noble costume is different. Nobles wear rasughan totop (coat) with long fabric at the lower part as in Solo and Jogja. Only in Madura the head band worn is odheng peredhan with storjan motive, bere songay or toh biru. Usually the costume is completed with sap-osap (handkerchief), pocket watch, stagen, katemang belt and jewellery such as selo’ or ring made of akar bahar. Usually wearer also wears wrist watch, and carries cane to show their class.
When attending a formal occasion, rasugan totop worn is usually black with odheng tongkosan kota with modang morive, dul cendul, garik or jingga. For Madurese, Odheng (head band) has a complex symbolical meaning from its size, motive or how to wear. Small size odheng tongkosan, smaller than head size, that make the wearer should look up so the odheng will stay on his head means, no matter how hard the call is one should accept it.
Shape and method to wear odheng also shows nobleness. The more straight of odheng tongkosan, is the higher nobleness of the wearer. For old noble, the wing of odheng is twisted and if the wearer is young the odheng’s wing is not twisted. Odheng is tied with certain way. Odheng Peredan, end of odheng is twisted with straight on the back symbolizes alif letter of arabic alphabet as symbol of confession of oneness of God.
Women Madurese costumes are generally kebaya in daily or formal occasions. Madurese kebaya costume typical is wearer wears brigh color or bra that is contrast with the color of Kebaya that is thin. Bra us press well on body. Women’s beauty can be seen obviously this is as the manifestation of Madurese culture that appreciate the beauty of women’s bodies. Madurese herbs are given to Madurese girls since children. And they should avoid eating few foods, and should wear penggel to make their body beautiful when they grow up. The bright contrast colors shows that Madurese are not reluctant, have courage, open and straight forward. They do not recognize soft refine words, also in choosing color of clothes or accessories. Long kebaya with pointed end is the typical of Madurese kebaya, usually wearer wears this with sarung batik with tumpal motive, but sometimes also worn batik with tabiruan, storjan or lasen motive, with white base color and the motive is dominated with red color. To wear the batik, women uses odhet resembles to Javanese stagen made of plain weaving with 15 cm width and 1.5 meters long. The color of odhet can be black, red or yellow. Odhet is equipped with pocket to save money.
Madurese accesories are very unique. Hair jewellery for women are cucuk sisir and cucuk dinar, both made of gold, and the shape is like arc. Cucuk sisir usually consist of strands of gold coins. Coin number depends on the wearer’s class. Cucuk dinar consists of dollar coins. The hair is combed backward, and then shaped in a bun. The bun is usually high. In east Madura, the shape of bun is thinner, oval and the position is sloping like that of Balinese. Harnal and hair cover also worn as accessories. Other jewellery for Madurese women is anteng or shentar penthol made of gold with plain motive. Anteng is earring.
Mative of Madurese necklace is unique. The pendant shape is like coin or with sun flower motive. Madurese women wear rings. To complete the kebaya, wearer usually wears pin made of gold.
From all jewelleries worn by Madurese women, penggel is the most unique. Penggel is jewellery for feel made of gold or silver. Penggel is symbol of Madurese women pride. Beside as symbol to show social and economy status, penggel also functions to show the beauty of women’s body. There is penggel having weight of 3 km, and if it is worn everyday will strengthen muscle.
For noble women, they do not show their wealth by accessories who are easy to see or heavy. Jewelleries for hairs, ears, hands and feet are smaller, yet decorated with diamonds. For formal appearance, Madurese noble wears long kebaya with Javanese or Madurese batik and sandal selop. Kebaya usually is made of velvet in dark color and without motive. The kebaya ends are round, and decorated with pin 3 levels with golden chain.
Young women are bun and the shape is like number 8 symbolizes Allah letter and pandan leave inside the bun strengthens the bun. For older women, they shape bun of mager sereh. The bun is decorated with tanjung flower and pandan flower. Hair is also decorated with cucuk emas with snake motive or sun flower motive and completed with karang melok and duwek remek (decoration made of flower). Golden Giwang kerambu and necklace with pendant full of diamonds are worn to beautify women;s appearance. Writ ring and ring are also made of gold with diamonds.
Beside costumes and jewellery, Madurese has a unique make up. Face is decorated with jimpit on the forehead. The part where jimpit is put is called as leng pelengan. In the past leng pelengan is made with pinches. Nowadays, leng pelengan used cosmetics. Eyes are lined with eye liner and teeth decorated with egan, layer for teeth made of platinum or gold.