Kahuripan in the Period of Majapahit
Kahuripan name appeared again in the history of Majapahit which was established since 1293. Raden Wijaya was the founder of Majapahit, and he no had intense concern on 2 kingdoms of Airlangga. Both kingdom was Kadiri or Daha, and Janggala or Kahuripan or Jiwana. Both kingdoms were the main subordinate kingdom of Majapahit, Daha on the west and Kahuripan on the East, while Majapahit as the center.
Pararaton recorded several names ever led as Batara i Kahuripan or Bhre Kahuripan. The first was Tribhuwana Tunggadewi , daughter of raden Wijaya. After 1319, her period was assisted by Gajahmada, as the patih of Kahuripan for his service to silence Ra Kuti rebellion.
When Hayam Wuruk’s position was a Yuwaraja and Kahuripan King, his title was Jiwanarajnapratisha. After he became king of Majapahit, Bhre Kahuripan then was given to his mother, Tribhuwana Tunggadewi. After Tribhuwana Tunggadewi died, Bhre Kahuripan was her grandchild, Surawardhani. And she was replaced by her son, Ratnapangkaja. Later he was replaced by his wife’s niece Suhita as Rajasawardhana. And when Rajasawardhana became king of Majapahit, Bhre Kahuripan was inherited to his older son, Samarawijaya.
Arts and Literature of Kahuripan
Under Airlangga leadership, arts and literature evolved. In 105, Mpu Kanwa wrote Arjunawiwaha, adapted from Mahabarata epic. Arjunawiwaha tells about Arjuna, the reincarnation of Wisnu, and as metaphor of Airlangga as depicted on Candi Belahan on slope of Mt Penanggungan.
The tale is about Arjuna, the beloved companion of gods in kahyangan or nirvana as he could cave kahyangan and its inhabitants from disaster. This story is depicted on Tegowangi temple located in pare, Kediri, East Java. According to history, Arjunawiwaha is allegedly the oldest kakawin in East Java period after political map moved to Central Java. The predecessor of Airlangga such as Dharmawangsa did not leave any literature. Kakawin arjunawiwaha has close link to the past history:
· Ambek sang paramarthapandita huwus limpad sakeng sunyata tan sangkeng wisaya prayojana nira lwir sanggraheng lokita siddha ning yasawirya don ira sukha ning rat kiningkin nira santosaheletan kelir sira sakeng sang hyang jagatkarana.
· Usnisangkwi lebu ni paduka nira sang mangkana lwir nira menggeh manggala ning miket kawijayan sang Parta ring kahyangan
. A wise heart has earnestly reaches to highest level of perfection. From sunyata (empty) state, not from the senses, yielding willpower to open oneself to worldly affairs.
· May his devotion full of good deed and his noble behavior, gain his goal. Hail toward himself and peacefully he accepted this, by keep separated by a screen from this eternal world.
Sampun keketan ing katharjunawiwaha pangarana nikeSaksat tambay ira mpu Kanwa tumatametu-metu kakawinBhrantapan teher angharep samarakarya mangiring ing hajiSri Airlangghya namo ‘stu sang panikelan tanah anganumata
I put my head top to the dust of king’s slipper who shows eminence. He is the source of blessing that never dries to pour Partha’s (ARjuna) victory, in the dwelling of gods in kahyangan.
The above content convenient with the fact that Airlangga who later could uphold Kahuripan kingdom after the death of Dharmawangsa from Wengker’s attack, which did not have the right for the sovereignty. Airlangga fought by living in forests to regain Kahuripan.
In the kakawin written that in 1028-1035, Airlangga could defeat his enemies who destroyed Kahuripan to fall apart. So we can conclude that this kakawin was written after that period. It was written that Airlangga live for years in forests and hermitage and accompanied by a Rsi or priest, that it was also a spiritual training that finally he could reach sunyata the highest perfection level as written on the prolog of the kakawin. Airlangga story fits to Arjuna in the kakawin. In the end of the kakawin, Mpu Kanwa was busy with war preparation expedition. That expedition was probably his effort to conquer his enemies or the end of war.
In Mahabarata, Arjuna meditated on Indrakila mountain to get powerful weapon to fight against Kurawa in Bharatayuda war, and in kakawin Arjunawiwaha, this similar to Airlangga struggle to regain Kahuripan kingdom from his enemies. As a poet who was involved in that ‘war’, he wrote the kakawin. His purpose was to enliven spirit and gain his noble purpose.
After Kurawa lost in a gambling (Kurawa cheated), Pandawa Knights (Yudhistira, Bima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sadewa) lost their right for Amerta Kingdom and should live in exile for 12 years and 1 year living in undercover as Pandawa. After that they can have their right for their kingdom.
In the preparation to regain Amerta, Arjuna ordered Yudhistira to ask for powerful weapons from Siva that Arjuna meditated in Indrakila, a hill in Himalaya.
In other place, there was a powerful giant, Niwatakawaca, heard about a very beautiful goddess, Suprabha. He went to kahyangan and asked Indra to make Suprabha as his wife. Gods and Indra did not agree as it is not supposed to be. But they realize that Niwatakawaca had a powerful power and even gods could not defeat him. They reported this to Siva and Siva explained that it was a destiny and a history that should happen. Niwatakawaca could not be defeated by any god and only a human could defeat him. They tried to spin out time by telling that Suprabha would be given to him after they prepared her well that she would not dissappoint him. And to heal his disappointment, he was given several apsara (half goddess creature). Niwatakawaca returned to his kingdom to wait for Suprabha, meanwhile gods tried to search for human to help them.
to be continued…