Ranggalawe Character

Ranggalawe was one of Raden Wijaya followers, the founder of Majapahit Kingdom but he died as  the first rebel in Majapahit history. Tuban people remember him as a hero until today.

Kidung Panji Wijayakrama and Kidung Ranggalawe mention Ranggalawe as son of Arya Wiraraja, Songenep (Sumenep) Regent. He lived in Tanjung, on western part of Madura Island.

In 1292, Ranggalawe was send by his father to assist Raden Wijaya to open Tarik Forest (west of Sidoarjo), to be a settlement called as Majapahit. It said that Ranggalawe name was given by Raden Wijaya, Lawe is a synonym of wenang means yarn or power. Ranggalawe means power given by raden Wijaya to lead him to open the forest.

Ranggalawe prepared 27 horses from Sumbawa for Raden Wijaya and his men ride to fight against Jayakatwang , king of Kediri. Assault to Kediri was done by Majapahit and Mongol troop in 1293. Ranggalawe ws in the assault and killed Sagara Winotan.

After Majapahit collapsed, Raden Wijaya became the king of Majapahit. According to Kidung Ranggalawe, he then was promoted as the regent of Tuban, the main harbor on East Java in that period. Kudadu Inscription from year 1294 listed Majapahit officials meritorious in the beginning of Majapahit, but Ranggalawe was not mentioned there. Only name of Arya Adikara and Arya Wiraraja. According to pararaton, Arya Adikara was the other name of Arya Wiraraja, but acccording to Kudadu, both are different person.

Muljana identified Arya Adikara is the alias of Ranggalawe. In Javanese tradition there was nunggak semi term : means father’s name could be used by son. So Arya Adikara, alias of Arya Wiraraja, later was used as title of Ranggalawe when he was promoted as Majapahit official. IN KUdadu Inscription, the father and son were as pasanggahan  with title of Rakryan Mantri Arya WIraraja and Rakryan Mantri Dwipangga Arya Adikara.

Pararaton mentions that Ranggalawe rebellion was in 1295, but it was told after the death of Raden Wijaya. According to this text, the rebellion was at the same time when Jayanegara became king. While according o Negarajertagama, Raden Wijaya died and replaced by Jayanegara in 1309, that expert say that Ranggalawe rebellion was in 1309, not 1295.

Negarakertagama also told that in 11295 Jayanegara was promoted as yuwaraja or young king in Daha. Kidung panju Wijayakrana abd Kidung Ranggalawe clearly tell that Ranggalawe rebellion was in Raden Wijaya period not Jayanegara.

Other facts, Arya Wiraraja and Arya Adikara were mentioned in Kudadu inscription in 1294, but later both were not mentioned at all in Sukamreta inscription date back 1296. This was probably a sign that Arya Adikara or Ranggalawe probably died in 1295 while Arya Wiraraja resigned after his son died.

So Ranggalawe;s death was in 1295 on Jayanegara coronation as young king. In this case, Pararaton did not make mistake the year, only it did on the event. While in Negarakertagama, things are more accurate, bit does not mention Ranggalawe rebellion at all. This was because Negarakertagama is a laudation that Mpu Prapanca, the writer, did not mention a hero rebellion which he considered as a disgrace.

In pararaton, Ranggalawa rebelled against Majapahit as he was tricked by a evil official, Mahapati. This story was written elaborately in Kidung Panji Wijayakrama and Kidung Ranggalawe. This was caused by the dissatisfaction of Ranggalawe as Nambi was promoted as rakryan patih. In Ranggalawe opinion, patih position should be given to Lembu Sura as he was more meritorious than Nambi.

Ranggalawe was a brave and emotional man, he came to meet Raden Wijaya in the capital and asked Nambi to be replaced by Lembu Sora. Yet Sora did not agree with that instead of supporting Nambi as patih. As his request was ignored, Ranggalawe made chaos in palace yard. Sore adviced Ranggalawe, his own nephew, to apologize to the king. Ranggalawe went home to Tuban.By the  sly Mahapati, Nambi was told that Ranggalawe was making a plan to rebel from Tuban. By the king permission,Nambi led Majaphit troop accompanied by Lembu Sora and Kebo Anabrang to punish Ranggalawe.

Knowing that Tuban was about to assaulted, Ranggalawe prepared his troop. He intercesped Majapahit troop nearby Tambak Beras river. The battle went on. Ranggalawe fought with Kebo Anabrang in the river. Kebo Anabrang could kill Ranggalawe with a very vicious way, by torturing him. Seeing his nephew died, Lembu Sora killed Kebo Anabrang by backstabbing him. This colleague murder later caused Sora’s death in 1300.

Pedigree of Ranggalawe
Kidung Ranggalawe and  Kidung Panji Wijayakrama tell that Ranggalawe had two wives, Martaraga and Tirtawati. His father in law was KI Ajar Pelandongan. From Martaraga he had a son Kuda Anjampiani. Both texts writes that Ranggalawe’s father was Arya Wiraraja.While in Pararaton, Arya Wiraraja was Nambi. Kidung Harsawijaya also mentions that Wiraraja’s son who was sent to assist Tarik forest opening, was Nambi, while Ranggalawe was Singasari kingdom officer that later became the first patih of Majapahit.

Kidung Harsawijaya is proven to be wrong as according to Sukameta inscription 1290, the first patih of Majapahit was Nambi not Ranggalawe. Nambi’s father, according to Kidung Sorandaka was Pranaraja. Brandes considers Pranaraja and Wiraraja were same person. Yet according to Muljana, Nambi was the son of Pranaraja, while Ranggalawe was the son of Wiraraja. This was signed by the appearance of Arya Wiraraja and Arya Adikara in Kudadu inscription and both disappeared in Sukamreta inscription.

In folklore, Ranggalawe was recognized in Serat Gamarwulana or Serat Kanda that tells that Ranggalawe lives on same period as Damarwulan and Minakjinggo. Damarwulan is a fiction character, as there is no history evidences and no inscription mentioning him. In folklore Ranggalawe was adipati of Tuban and also the warlord of Majapahit in the period of queen Kencanawungu. When Majapahit was attacked by Minakjinggo, Blambangan adipati, Ranggalawe was assigned to stop him. IN the war Minakjinggo could not kill Ranggalawe as he was covered by a weapon, an umbrella. Minakjinggo then  kill the weapon holder, Wongsopati. After that Minak Jinggo could kill Ranggalawe. Ranggalawe had two son Siralawe and Buntarlawe they were regent of Tubana nd Bojonegoro.

Muljana, Slamet. 2006. Nagarakretagama dan Tafsir Sejarahnya. Yogyakarta: LKiS.
2005. Menuju Puncak Kemegahan. Yogyakarta: LKiS.
2005. Runtuhnya Kerajaan Hindu-Jawa dan Timbulnya Negara-Negara Islam di Nusantara.
Yogyakarta: LKiS. http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranggal…_pemberontakan

Translated from sejarah-puri-pemecutan.blogspot.com