Mataram Islam, Java, Indonesia

Mataram Kingdom was established in 1582, the centrum of the kingdom was located on the south east of Yogyakarta, Kotagede. In Islam history, Mataram Islam KIngdom had a pivotal role in Islam kingdoms in Indonesia. Ullema were involved as well in developing culture with Islam value in Java. Mataram Islam dynasty was initially from farmer family, as written in babad Tanah Jawi. On the bank of Opak river, currently Yogyakarta.  Oneday, there was a farmer, his name was Ki Ageng Giring. When he hacked the soil in his fam land, suddenly there was a young coconut fell and there was a mysterious sound said ‘ whoever drank water of this coconut, his descendant will be the rulers of Java’. People belief that the coconut water was the word of Sunan Kalijaga. Ki Ageng Giring brought the coconut home and but he did not drink the water, as he was fasting that day. He went to river to clean himself. Not long after his friend, Ki Gede Pemanahan visited his empty house. Seeing the coconut, he drank the water till the last drop. Ki Ageng Giring came home and home and saw his coconut water was drank by his friend. He asked Gede Pemanahan that after his 7  generation, his descendant will be the ruler of Java.

There are other versions about the establishment of Mataram according to myth and legend. Generally, those versions were related to previous kingdoms sucha s Demak and Pajang. According to one of the versions, after Demak  sat back, the capital was moved to pajang and Pajang functioned as a kingdom. The kingdom then expanded to East Java and involved in a family conflict with ARya Penangsang from Jipang Panolan regency. After conquering Aryo Penangsang, Sultan Hadiwijaya (1550-1582), king of Pajang gave award to 2 men who served him in that project, they were Ki Ageng Pemanahan and Ki Penjawi. Ki Ageng Penjawi was awarded with Mentaok forest and Ki Penjawi was awarded with a land in Pati. Pemanahan opened Mentaok forest and became a prosperous village, and gradually became small kingdom and was ready for rivalry with Pajang as the main Kingdom. Pemanahan died in 1575 and replaced by his son, Danang Sutawijaya or known as Pengeran Ngabehi Loring Pasar. Sutawijaya then rebelled Pajang. After Sultan Hadiwijaya passed away in 1582, Sutawijaya promoted himself as the king of Mataram with title Panembahan Senopati. Pajang then became part of Mataram, and the capital of Mataram was in Kotagede.

After Demak Kingdom fell, Pajang Kingdom was the olny kingdom in Central Java. But king of Pajang had strong enemies tried to ruin the kingdom, he is Aryo Penangsang. The king then made a contest that whoever could defeat of kill Aryo Penangsang would be rewarded with land in Pati and Mataram. Ke Ageng pemanahan and Ki Penjawi were two soldiers of Pajang who were intended to participate in the contest. In the end of the war, finally Danang Sutawijaya could defeat and kill Arya Penangsang. Sutawijaya was the son of Ki Pemanahan and the foster son of Pajang king. As Sutawijaya was the foster son of Sultan, so it was impossible for Ki Pemanahan to tell Sultan Adiwijaya. Kyai Juru Martani then suggested Ke Pemanahan and Ki penjawi to tel Sultan that they both who killed Arya Penangsang. Ki Ageng Pemanahan was rewarded with Mentaok forest and Ki Penjawi was rewarded with land in Pati.

After panembahan Senopati died, he was replaced by his son, Mas Jolang or Panembahan Seda Krapyak, who only reigned for 12 years (1601-1603) as written in his govt, and he built Danalaya garden on the west of Kraton. He died when he hunt at Krapyak forest. He was replaced by Mas Rangsang, known as Sultan Agung Hanyakrakusuma. He ruled from 1631-1645 and Mataram reached its glorious day. The capital, Kotagede was then moved to Kraton Plered. Sultan Agung also conquered littoral regions so they would not harm Mataram. Sultan Agung fought VOC that ruled over Batavia. Sultan Agung masterpiece was Grebeg Pasa and Grebeg Maulud Ritual. Sultan Agung died in 1645. He was replaced by Amangkurat I. Amangkurat I did not inherited his father nature. There were lots of killing and cruelty during his period. Mataram capital was moved to Kerta. In 1674 Trunajaya war broke. Trunajaya was supported by ullema and noble class a. nd even the royal prince. Kerta fell and Amangkurat I (with his son that finally on his side), escaped to get help from VOC. Arriving at Tegal Arum (nearby Tegal, Central Java), Amangkurat I fell sick and died. He was replaced by his son, Amangkurat II or known as Sunan Amral. Sunan Amangkurat II reigned from 1677-1703, and he was obedient to VOC to maintain his throne. Finally Trunojoyo could kill AMangkurat II by favor of VOC and as compensation VOC wanted an agreement that Mataram should hypothecate Semarang Port and Mataram should bear war cost.

After the death of Amangkurat II in 1703, he was replaced by his son, Sunan Mas (Sunan Amangkurat III). He was also against VOC, that VOC did not agree Sunan Amangkurat III was promoted as sultan and VOC promoted Paku Buwono I (Pangeran Puger). Civil was could not be avoided, between Amangkurat III and Paku Buwana I, Amangkurat III lost and he was exiled to Sailan by VOC. Paku Buwono I died in 1719 and then replaced by Amangkurat IV (1719-1727). During his period particians rebelled and VOC was implicated. Therefore,  throne fight II broke in  1719-1723. Sunan Prabu or Sunan Amangkurat IV died in 1727 and replaced by Paku Buwana II (1727-1749). In his period, Chinese rebelled against VOC.

Paku Buwana II was on side of Chinese and helped to destroy VOC fortress in Kartasura. VOC was supported by Panembahan Cakraningrat of Madura and could finish Chinese rebellion. Paku Buwana was worried and then he change to side VOC> THis caused Raden Mas Garendi rebellion who fought with Chinese to attack Keraton, that Paku Buwana II escaped to Ponorogo. Kraton could be regained by the assistance of VOC in 1743, as kraton was damaged badly, then kraton was moved to Surakarta in 1744. Another rebellion was led by Raden Mas Said. Paku Buwono assigned Mangkubumi to silence the rebellion and promised Sukowati (currently Sragen). Although Mangkubumi could finish his call, Paku Buwono denied his promise and finally Mangkubumi was on Mas Said side. They both rebelled in Throne Fight III (1747-1755)

Paku Buwono II could not fight both forces and he fell sick and died in 1749. VOC promoted Paku Buwono II. Mangkubumi kept his action and he could reign Jogja, bagelen, and Pekalongan. But in that period there was a conflict between Mangkubumi and Mas Said. VOC was very keen knowing this. VOC sent an arabic messenger from batavia to asked Mangkubumi to reconcile. Mangkubuni accepted and there was a Pailhan Nagari or Giyanti Agreement in 1755. Giyanti Agreement content was splitting Mataram into two. The west was given to Mangkubumi entitled as Hamengkubuwono I and the palace was in Yogyakarta. The east was given to Paku Buwono. Since then, Mataram was divided into two, Kasultanan Yogyakarta with the king was Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I and Kasunanan Surakarta reigned by Sri Susuhunan Paku Buwana III.

Kings of Mataram Islam:
1. Panembahan Senopati (1584-1601 M)
2. Mas Jolang atau Seda Ing Krapyak (1601- 1613 M)
3. Mas Rangsang / Sultan Agung Hanyakrakusuma (1613-1646 M)
4. Amangkurat I (1646- 1676 M)
5. Amangkurat II / Sunan Amral (1677- 1703 M)
6. Sunan Mas / Amangkurat III in 1703 M
7. Pangeran Puger / Paku Buwana I (1703-1719 M)
8. Amangkurat IV /  Sunan Prabu (1719-1727 M)
9. Paku Buwana II (1727-1749 M)
10. Paku Buwana III  1749 M promoted by VOC.
11. Sultan Agung

Pajang and Mataram Islam Kingdom was very limited. The source was part of chronicle text, or oral tradition. The source was also from Portuguese in 16th and beginning of 17th century and only partly touch events on littoral areas, whether trading or about kingdoms. Therefore, mostly Mataram history source was only based on domestic source.