Mataram Kuno (Old Mataram) Kingdom or Medang Kingdom, Central Java, Indonesia

History of Medang Kingdom or more popular as Old Mataram was very confusing. This is due to shortage of source to reveal information about this kingdom. Sanjaya was the founding father of the kingdom but there was no source about how he built the kingdom. There were few versions about Sanjaya pedigree . Old Mataram was reigned by 2 dynasties, Sanjaya and Syailendra.

Sanjaya dynasty is dynasty that follow Hindu religion, known as the founding father of Medang Kingdom (Old Mataram). This dynasty was  Hindu Siva believer with Kunjaradari (India) as its Mecca. This dynasty was born in 732 and there was not much information about this dynasty.

Kings of Sanjaya Dynasty:

1.King Sanjaya
King Sanjaya was the first Mataram king according to Mantyasih inscription issued by Maharaja Dyah Balitung date back 907. Sanjaya himself made an inscription on 6 October 732 about the erection of a lingga and a temple to worship Siva on a hill. The temple is now only ruins on Gunung Wukir near Kedu. Canggal inscription also tells that before Sanjaya became king there was another king, King Sanna, that ruled Java wisely. After king Sanna died, Sanjaya, son of Sannaha (Sanna’s sister) became the nest king and Java became peaceful again.

Canggal inscription does not mention name of Sanna’s / Sanjaya’s kingdom. While Mantyasih inscription mentiones Sanjaya as the first king of Medang, while Sanna is not mentioned at all. Probably Sanna was not the king of Medang. It is possible that Sanjaya inherited a different kingdom. This could be like in the end of 13th century when Raden Wijaya inherited Kertanegara throne, but he built himself a new kingdom, Majapahit.

In the period of Medang Kingdom, there was a tradition to put old position to Maharaja title. For instance, king that issued Mantyasih inscription (907) was Sri Maharaja Rakai Watukura Dyah Balitung Dharmodaya Mahasambu. It means that his name was Dyah Balitung, before coronation he was the regent of Watukura.

Sanjaya title was Rakai Mataram, the king of Sanjaya. It is estimated that when King Sanna reigned, Sanjaya was the regent of Mataram (currently Yogyakarta). Mataram was probably the capital when Sanjaya established Medang Kingdom. Thats why Medang Kingdom known as Mataram Kingdom. In the era of Dyah Balitung, the capital of Medang was moved to Poh Pitu. When and how Medang was built was not known. One of Sanjaya descendant, Mpu Daksa introduced the used of  Sanjayawarsa or Sanjaya calendar. According to historian analysis, year 1 Sanjaya calendar was in 717. There were two analysis: 717 was the coronation of Sanjaya, or the birth of Sanjaya.

If Sanjaya’s coronation was in 717,then Canggal inscription (732) was issued when Medang Kingdom built for 15 years. And if 717 was the birth of Sanjaya, then Canggal inscription was issued when Sanjaya was 15 years and already became king. This means that Sanna promoted his nephew when he was child as Jayanegara in Majapahit era.

2.Rakai Pikatan
Rakai Pikatan was the prince of Sanjaya dynasty and married to Pramodhawardhani (833-856), the daughter of Syailendra’s daughter (King Samaratungga’s daughter) . Since then Sanjaya that was Hinduism dominated Mataram, replaced with Buddhism. Rakai Pikatan defeated King Balaputradewa in 850, and Sanjaya became the only ruler of Mataram.

Wantil inscription was also known as Siwagreha inscription issued in 12 Novemner 856. This inscription mentioned the erection of Mamratipura palace, Siwagreha sacred building or translated as Siva temple. According to characteristics delineates in that inscription, Siva Temple resembles one of main temples in Candi Prambanan. Therefore the main temple in the complex was built by Rakai Pikatan and other temples possibly were built by the next kings.

3.Rakai Kayuwangi
It was not correct considering that Rakai Kayuwangi was the king of Mataram as according to Wantil inscription, in that period, Medang Kingdom palace was not in Mataram anymore, but it had been moved by Rakai Pikatan to Mamrati or Mamratipura. Rakai Kayuwangi was the youngest son of Rakai Pikatan from his queen Pramodhawardhani. He was born with name Dyah Lokapala (in Wantil inscription) or Mpu Lokapala (in Argapura inscription).

According to Wantil / Siwagreha inscription, date back 12 November 856, Syah Lokapala succeeded his father, Sang Jatiningrat (Rakai Pikatan title as Brahmana). Rakai Pikatan chose his youngest son as his predecessor was because of his service to defeat his enemy at Ratu Baka hill.

Popular theory mentioned that the name of Rakai Pikatan enemy was Balaputradewa for Wantil inscription mentioned Walaputra term. Yet, Buchari, Historian could not find Balaputradewa name mentioned in Ratu Boko Hill, instead of Rakai Walaing Mpu Kumbhayoni. Walaputra means youngest son, the nickname of Dyah Lokapala that defeated his father’s enemy.

Therefore in the end Rakai Pikatan period there was Rakai Walaing Mpu Kumnhayoni rebellion who said that he was the descendant of Sanjaya, the founder of Medang. The rebellion was then silenced by Rakai Kayuwangi Dyah Lokapala or Walaputra, that people supported him for throne. Rakai Walaing theory answers popular theory about bothers war between Balaputradewa against Pramodhawardhani and Rakai Pikatan after Samaratungga dies.

4.Rakai Watuhumalang
According to king list of Medang Kingdom in Mantyasih inscription, Rakai Watuhumalang became the 8th king and succeeded Rakai Kayuwangi. The inscription was issued in 907 by Dyah Balitung, king reigned after Rakai Watuhumalang.Rakai Watuhumalang did not leave any inscription with his name carved. While Panunggalan inscription dated back 19 November 896 mentioned that there was a figure, Sang Watuhumalang Mpu Teguh, but his title was not Maharaja, instead of haji (king subordinate).

There is no further information wether Mpu Teguh was also Rakai Watuhumalang. If both were the same person then Rakai Watuhumalang only reigned in such a short period. In 896 he was a subordinate king and then in 899 (Telahap Inscription) Dyah Balitung was the king of Medang Mataram.

5.Rakai Watukura Dyah Balitung
Dyah Balitung became king as he married the daughter of previous king. It is possible that the king was Rakai Watuhumalang that according to Mantyasih inscription, he reigned before Balitung. And possibly Dyah Balitung could be king also because the king also had a son, Mpu Daksa (Telahap inscription). Other reason was because maybe Medang Kingdom was on separation threat after Rakai Kayuwangi died. Manggu Antan inscription was issued by Maharaja Rakai Gurunwangi and Poh Dulur inscription issued by Rakai Limus Dyah Dewendra.

Possibly, Dyah balitung was the son in law of Rakai Watuhumalang (king of Medang that succeeded Rakai Kayuwangi), as he could defeate Rakai Gurunwangi and Rakai Limus to accept the sole power in Medang. Therefore, after Rakai Watuhumalang died, people vote for Balitung to be king instead of Mpu Daksa, the son of the king.

In the period of Dyah Balitung, Medang palace was not located in Mataram or Mamrati, but moved to Poh Pitu, Yawapura Palace. This was possibly because Mamratipura palace (that was built by Rakai Pikatan) was broken for war between Rakai Kayuwangi against Rakai Gurunwangi. The oldest found inscription signed by Balitung is Telahap inscription dated back 11 September 899. This could be not the first inscription made by Balitung, that perhaps Balitung had reigned already before 899.

Watukura inscription dated  back 27 July 902. This inscription was the oldest inscription mentioning the position of Rakryan Kanuruhan, similar to prime minister. While Rarkryan Mahapatih in Balitung period was the royal prince, Mpu Daksa.

Telang inscription from 11 January 904 was about construction of a compound called Paparuhuan led by Rakai Welar Mpu Sudarsana on the bank of Bengawan Solo River. Balitung did not levy tax to Paparahuan and vicinity and banned the people to charge whoever cross the river.

Poh Pitu inscription was from 17 July 905, about tax free at Poh village as this village was assigned to take care of Sang Hyang Caitya shrine and Silunglung  from previous king buried in Pastika, Rakai Pikatan. This king was the grandfather of Mpu Daksa.

Kubu-kubu inscription dated back 17 October 905 was about Kubu-kubu village gift to Rakryan Hujung Dyah Mangarak and Rakryan Matuha Dyah Majawuntan as both had led conquering Bantan region. Few historian translated Bantan as the synonym of Bali. Bantan means victim, while Bali means offering or tribute.

Mantyasih inscription dated back 11 April 907 was about awards given to 5 officials for their service to guard the wedding of Dyah Balitung. In this inscription also mentioned kings of Medang that reigned previously. In 907 Dyah Balitung also gave Rukan village as a gift to his grandmmother Rakryan Sanjiwana for taking care of shrine in Limwung.

6.Mpu Daksa
Mpu Daksa went to throne to replace Dyah Balitung, his brother in law. This relative relations was proven as Daksa was often called with wife of Balitung respectively in few inscription. Information from Tang Dynasty mentions ‘Tat So Kan Hiung’ means Daksa, the brave king’s brother.

Dyah Balitung was estimated went to throne after married the previous king’s daughter, that automatically Mpu Daksa was known as royal prince. Possibly that the king was Rakai Watuhumalang, reigned before Balitung according to Mantyasih inscription. As in Telahap inscription, Mpu Daksa was the grandson of Rakryan Watan Mpu tamer, the wife of a king buried in pastika, Rakai Pikatan. Therefore, Daksa was the grandson of Rakai Pikatan. Plaosan inscription issued Rakai Pikatan mentions Sang Kalungwarak Mpu Daksa.

7.Rakai Layang Dyah Tulodhong
Dyah Tulodhong was considered to be a king after Mpu Daksa. In Ritihang inscription issued by Mpu Daksa, there was a person, Rakryan Layang, and real name was not readable. Characteristically, Rakryan Layang was a woman with high position, so it was impossible that she was Dyah Tulodhong. Possibly Rakryan Layang was the daughter of Mpu Daksa. Dyah Tulodhong married her that he got title as Rakai Layang, even went to throne replaced her father in law, Mpu Daksa.

In Lintakan inscription, Dyah Tulodhong was the son of someone buried in Turu Mangambil. Lintakan inscription date back 12 July 919, the oldest inscription found to mention Tulodhong as king. When he reigned, his Rakryan Mapatih Hino was Mpu Ketuwijaya, and his title was Sri Ketudhara Manimantaprabha Prabhusakti. While the Rakryan Halu was Mpu Sindok.

Harinjing Inscription dated back 19 September 921 was about awarding12 Bhagawanta Bhari’s children that were all over. Bhagawanta Bhari was a figure known for his service to built dam to avoid flood. They were also awarded by the previous king. Inscription of children of Bhagawanta Bhari was renewed in 7 March 927 where they were awarded with Culanggi village as sima swatantra (free tax land). This renewal was done by Rakai Hini Mpu Ketuwijaya, who was suggested by Rakai Sumba as Sang Pamgat Momahuma.

8.Rakai Sumba Dyah Wawa
Dyah Wawa went to throne replacing Dyah Tulodhong. Rakai Sumba was recorded in Culanggi inscription dated back 7 March 927, as Sang Pamgat Momahumah, some kind of court official. Beside entitled as Rakai Sumba, Dyah Wawa was also entitled as Rakai Pangkaja. Dyah Wawa has right to throne of Dyah Tulodhong. Historian Boechari considered that Dyah Wawa did coup d’etat to get to throne of Medang kingdom.

The coup seems to be executed by Dyah Wawa with favor of Mpu Sindok who was promoted as Rakryan Mapatih Hino. In Dyah Tulodhong, Mpu Sindok was Rakryan Halu, while Rakai Hino position was Mpu Ketuwijaya.  Mpu Wawa left Sangguran inscription dated back 2 August 928 about assigning Sangguran village as sima swatantra (fee tax land) and local participated to take care of shrine in Kajurugusalyan.