Candi (Temple) Jago, Malang, East Java

Candi Jago(Jago Temple) is situated in Jago Village, Kecamatan Tumpang, Malang Regency. The former name of this temple is Jayaghu and this was built by King Kertanegara to be dedidated to King Wisnuwardhana, that died in 1268. Hayam Wuruk, the most popular king of Majapahit ever visited this temple according to a written source.

Although the temple is known as King Wisnuwardhana grave, the architecture and decoration of this temple is from end of Majapahit era style. In 1350, the temple was restored by King Adityawarman, and few other restoration in the mid of 15th century.

The structure os Candi Jago similar to terraced ceremonial structures (Punden Berundak), as the characteristic of Megalithic period religions that revived on the end of Majapahit Era. The body of the temple is on the foot of the temple that has 3 terraces. It is estimated that the roof of the temple was once covered by thatched roof as temples in Bali. Tumpang Village, where Candi Jago located, could be derived from Javanese that means “layer, terrace”.

The primal diety of Candi jago is Amogapasha, a antric form of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara that has eight hands. Amoghapasa is the heighest god in Budha Tantra in the manifestation of Wisnuwardhana as written in Negarakertagama. The statue of Amoghapasha resides in the temple garden but the head has gone. Next to Amoghapasha, rest Bhaiwara statue headless and other smaller statuary and remnants of temples scattered in the vicinity of the temple. Bhairawa is possibly the manifestation of Adityawarman when he reigned Majapahit. Adityawarman also built a big statue of Bhairawa in Jambi. Other statuary found at the temple location have had been transported to Museum in Jakarta, they are Bhrkuti, Symatara, Sudanekumara and Kayagriwa.

The temple’s decoration, especially on the body of the temple depicts story of Khrisnayana, Parthayajna and Kunjakarna emphasize that the temple was built on the end period of Majapahit or when it was renovated by Adityawarman. Parthayajna and Kunjakarna were kakawin written by Mpu Tanakung that lived in the end of Majapahit Kingdom. According to PJ Zoetmulder in 1983, those kakawin were sclupted on a temple is East Java, Jago Temple.

Kunjakarna relief decorates the terace of the temple that depicts story about Boddhicitta Wairocana in a temple and taught about Jina, Boddhisatva, Bajrapani and gods. At the same time, Kinjakarna was doing Buddha meditation on Mt Semeru to be releasds from his evil nature in his ext incarnation.

Parthahayajna relief depicts the journey of Arjuna from Indrakila Mountain to train himself by meditating (tapabrata) to get gods help. Mt Indrakila is the place where he could meet gods, through Rsi Dwipawaya, the mahaguru of Sivadharma. After a year meditating on Mt Indrakila, Arjuna could reach his goal where Siva showed himself as Hyang Kirata.

Krisnayana relief depicts because of  the marriage between Wisnuwardhana with Nararya Waning Hyun, as the symbol of Wisnu and Dewi Sri that incarnated as Krisna and Rukmini. In Krisnayana kakawin, Prthukirti, Rukmini’s mother is the brother of Kunti and Basudewa, that Kresna and Rukmini were cousins. That fact resembles marriage Wisnuwardhana and Waning Hyu that were cousins.

The reliefs that are blend of Budha and Hindu shows that Wisnuwardhana embraced sincretism. The architecture is a blend of Hindu, Buddha and Java. Though he was Hindu, but he appreciated Buddhist belief. This temple is symbol of an outstanding tolerance in the history.