Arabica and robusta are two species’s of coffee. The main difference are the conditions of the where they grow and also economically difference.
Arabica has more various tastes, from sweet and soft to strong and sharp one. Before roasted the smell is like blueberry, and after roasted it smells like fruit and sweet. While Robusta has neutral to strong tastes variation and considered as the taste of wheat. Robusta’ bean before roasted has nuts aroma. Unfortunately it is so rare hi quality robusta in market. Arabica beans is more expensive.
Arabica grows on the altitude of 700-1700 m asl and ranges of temperature 16-20 °C, with dry climate for 3 months consecutively. Arabica is sensitive to leaf rust desease Hemileia vastatrix (HV), especially when drown in elevation less than 700 m asl.
Coffee from Brazil and Ethiopia dominate 70 % of the world coffee. arabica has more variety, depends on the country, climate and soil. We can find coffee of Toraja, Mandailing, Columbia, Brazil and etc. And each of arabica has different taste.
Arabica coffee characteristics:
-The aroma has similar aroma of mix flower and fruit. Grow in mild to cold area. It has sour taste unlike Robusta. It has thick taste when sipped. The taste is more mild and soft. Arabica is known as bitter.
Arabica tree characeristics:
More difficult to nurture, tend to grow in high land (1000m – 2000m), less amount of beans, it taked 9 months from flower to fruit process, it has fruits in colder termepature.
Robusta coffe is the heredity of few coffee species’, especially Coffea canephora. It grows well on 400-700 m asl, and temperature range 21-24 ° C with 3-4 months dry months consecutively and 3-4 times rains. Fruit quality is lower than Arabica and Liberica. It dominated 30% world market. This coffee can be found outside Columbia such as Indonesia and The Philippines. Just like Arabica, the soil, climate, and packing process are different from country to another. The taste is different too among the country.
Here are the characteristic of robusta coffee
-Taste is more chocolate
-The aroma is unique and sweet
-The color is so various depends on the processing method
-The texture is rougher than Arabica.
Characteristics of Robusta coffee
-susceptible to insects
-it grows on lower land (700 m asl)
-It produces more coffee bean
-It takes 10-11 months flower to fruit process
-It bears fruits on warmer temperature.