Kakawin Nagarakretagama or also called as kakawin Desawarnanana can be described as the most famous old javanese kakawin. This kakawin is the most widely studied as well. Kakawin written in 1365, was firstly found in 1894 by J LA Brandes, a Dutch scientist who joined KNIL expedition in Lombok. He saved the books in Lombok king library in Cakranegara before the palace burnt by KNIL soldiers.
This kakawin describes about situation in Majapahit Palace in the period of Hayam Wuruk, the great king of Java and Nusantara. He reigned from1 1350 to 1389, in the glorious day of Majapahit, the biggest kingdom in Nusantara.
Negarakertagama was introduced in English in the 14th century, berween 1960-196, by Pigeaud. Also popularized in English by Zoetmulder, in 1974, as one of old Javanese literatures. And in 1979 for the first time Negarakertagama was read in Bahasa Indonesia and translated by Slamet Mulyana.
Negarakertagama was found in 5 texts.On July 7th 1978 in Antapura, Lombok, Bali (1 test) with Desawanana title, kept in Geria Pidada. In 1874 in Puri Cakranegara, Lombok Island found 1 test with title : Nagara Kretagama. And later, unknown discovery, in Geria Pidada, Klungkung found rontal Nagara Kretagama derivative 1text and in Geria Carik Sideman found 2 texts of Nagara Kretagama derivative. Nagara Kretagama is about relation among king’s family, officials, the governance, custom, temple grave of ancestors. And free-tax villages, the capital situation, and villages along the route of King’s trip in 1359.
Nagara Kretagama is source of old Indonesia history, though majority of the content is influenced by subjective elements to please the ruler in that period. Nagara Kretagama has other name, Desawarnana or description about villages, as written in pupuh 94. This was because King Hayam Wuruk often went down to honor his ancestors and his people.
Nagara Kretagama is a best journalistic piece, while Mpu Prapanca was popular ‘journalist’ in Majapahit. Yet, there are other stuffs ignored until todays such as research about temples and villages in the text. Mpu Prapanca was regarded as the pioneer of Indonesia archaeology and the precursor of historic archaeology. Mpu Prapanca held an inventory and description about various historical heritage in his era. Prapanca had done field survey that benefit science.
According to Budya Pradipta about Nagarakretagama in 2005, Majapahit constituted on 5 groups:
Jawa : Jiwana, Singasari, Wengker, Lasem, Daha, Pajang, Matahun, Paguhan, Wirabhumi, Mataram, Pawwanawwan, and Kebalan.
Digantara (Other areas under King Rajasa Nagara but outside Java): Pahang, Melayu, Gurun, and Bakulapura.
Nusantara (other Islands): Melayu, Tanjung Nagara, Semenanjung Malaya
Desantara is all corners, the sky, other regions, and other countries: Syangka, Ayodyapura, Dharmanagari, marutama, Rajapura, Anghanagari, Campa, Kamboja.
Dwipantara is other archipelago and partner : Yawana, China, Karnataka, and Goda.
Behind this controversy, there is an interesting thing, that Sunda and Madura were not part of Majapahit, while in this text mentions Sumatera, Brunei to papua (in the text was mentioned as Wanin=Onin). The writer admit that Nagarakretagama was the first book he wrore. Previously Prapanca had written Parwasagara, Bhismasaranantya, Sugataparwa and two other books that were not finished yet : Saba Abda and lambang, Yet all those are not found yet, or probably were decayed.
Nagarakretagama means country with sacred tradition (religion). But the writer also mentioned that Desawarnana means’the writing about regions.’ Nagarakretagama was written by Mpu Prapanca in 1365 (1287 Saka) in Makalasana on mountain slope. When he was writing this, he was not entitled as Mpu yet and was still a poet. His father was mpu Nadendra who was Dharmadhyaksa ring Kasogatan, or leader in Buddhism.
Nagarakretagama consists of 98 pupuh, This text was started by a worship to Wilwatikta king, or the king of Majapahit in the period of Hayam Wuruk mentioned as Siwa-Buddha , Rajasanagara. the next 7 pupuh are about king and his family, the next 9 pupuh are about palace and city of Majapahit. From here historian and archaeologist reconstructed Majapahit History. The longest part is about the trip agenda of Hayam Wuruk to Lumajang (23 Pupuh) done in August to September 1359.
10 pupuh tells about brief pedigree of Singasari king and Majapahit (Girindra dynasty). Singasari and Majapahit were 2 kingdoms that could not be separated. The next part is king’s hunting (10 pupuh), Gajah Mada story (23 pupuh) and Sraddha ceremony for king’s mother (9 pupuh). And 7 last pupuh are about Prapanca.
In the outset, this text was found as a single text saved by J LA Brandes, an expert of Java-Dutch Literature, who was involved in attacking King of Lombok Palace in 1894. When this attack was executed, KNIL burnt the palace and Brandes saved the library texts of lontar leaves.One of them was Nagarakretagama. The texts were kept in Leiden University library, Holland.
Nagarakretagama is kept in Leiden and was given a code L or 5.023. And when Queen Juliana went to Indonesia in 1973, this text was given to Indonesia. And this text was then kept in Indonesia National Library and coded as NB 9.
Mpu Prapañca is a poet lived in the 14th century in the period of Majapahit and possible beside as a poet he was a famous mpu. His name is known by Indonesia and this was because he wrote Kakawin Nagarakretagama.
It required 614 years for Majapahit descendants to did not only get any picture about life in the palace, and where usually poet lived in its ivory tower, but also a description about villages. Prapanca got the truth feely, he should separate from Hayam Wuruk group in the trip in 1359, to see other reality, which not every writer in that period brave enough to do that, moreover to write in down.
Nagarakteragama is the only source about Majapahit existence, only could be borne by a brave vision, not only in literature writing but also also political stability. In Slamet Mulyana analysis, though this text is not a worship litarature to Hayam Wuruk Sri Rajasanagara yet Prapanca’s political view was not linear with Gajah nmada, who was the foundation of Tribhuwana Tunggadewi’s governance.
This piece of work is as a sign of his service to Hayam Wuruk though in writting Nagarakretagama Mpu Prapanca did not live in Majapahit palace anymore. Mpu Prapanca did not have position as Dharmadyaksa Kasogatan yet lived in a village of Kamalasana on a slope of mountain as an ascetic. Mpu Prapanca left the palace as he was mocked by the king for his attitude, and made his position lost.
Hayam Wuruk trusted a malign by an official. Yet Mpu Prapanca did not have any revenge to the king and even still adore him. King Lasem who reigned in Lombok, was said the text was escaped from Bali to Lombok. Therefore it is concluded that Mpu Prapanca lived in Bali after leaving Majapahit Palace.
Kamalasana village was where Mpu Prapanca meditated, was the origin name of Karangasem. In the mid of 1978, in Karang asem village, bali was found Desawarnana,a literature of Mpu Prapanca which is now kept in griya pidada Karangasem Bali. Three other texts were found in griya pidada Klungkung, and griya Carik Sideman. The text similar to Nagarakretagama found in Puri Cakranegara Lombok. Desawarnana tells about villages visited by Hayam Wuruk: Saka Abda, Lambang, Parwa Sagara, Bhismasaranantya dan Sagataparwa.
From pupuk 17/8, Mpu Prapanca was the descendant of Dharmadyaksa in the period of Hayam Wuruk, Mpu Prapanca relaced his father who was also a dharmadyaksa from 1358-1361. Since his childhood Prapanca made formal appearance to king that king would let him to follow his trip to create a history in the kingdom in kakawin.
Prapanca was just a pen name.Prapanca derives from Pra and Panca means pre- five : prapanca, pracacab, prapongpong, pracacad, pracongcong : invalid figure of the writer if laughed out loud, his cheeks were swollen, sleepy eyes, his talk is peculiar or funny. Prapanca probably was a pen name and the meaning is ‘confuse’.
His real name was Rangkwi Padelengan Dang Acarya Nadendra, the Dharmadyaksa Kasogatan in Hayam Wuruk period as in Trawulan and Sekar Charter. Prapanca which means sadness usage was because when he wrote it, the writer was in sad as he lost his position as Dharmadyaksa Kasogatan and left Majapahit to live in village. He was afraid to be recognized by people, so he used alias name.
Nagarakretagama was written in 1287 Saka from September to OCtober 1365 and tells about the trip of Hayam Wuruk to Lumajang in 1281 or 1359 where Mpu Prapanca involves as Dharmadyaksa Kasogatan.
Om ! My worship , a humble under the feet of protector of Siva Buddha Janma-Batara who is always drown in meditation Sri Prawatanata, the protector of the poor, kinf of all king in the world of Dewa Batara, more fantasy than fantasies, but visible on the earth surface, prevalent but absorbing all creatures, no-use for Wismana people, Iswara for Yogi, Purusa for Kapila, wealthyman for Jambala, wagindra in knowledge, god of love in love lust, Yama god in disappearing obstacles and guarantees the world.
That was the praise of poet wrote history of king, toward Sri Nata Rajasanagara, Sri nata Milwatikta who is reigning the country, as the incarnation of Dewaa -Batara (gods) he sweeps the mourn of all people, Java people defer to him, even the whole Nusantara.
Saka Year Time Archery Sun 91256) he was born to be narpati, during pregnancy in Kahuripan, had shown nobleness sign, quake, smoldering smoke, ash rain, darting thunder, Mt Kampud rumbled killing wicked men, villains were gone from the country.
That was the sign that Batara Girinata blossomslike the great king, proven, when reigns, the whole Java capturing the commands, wipra, warrior, Vaishya, sudra, four castes were in service, wicked cease to do evil, fear the courage Sri Nata.
The famous Sri Rajapatni is the grandmother of The King, as the incarnation of Parama Bagawati umbrella the universe, as old wikuni persistent practicing Yoga worshiping Buddha, Saka year dresyi saptaruna (1272) she returned to Budaloka.
When Sri Rajapatni returned to Jinapada, the mourning world was happy again since The King got to the throne, her mother was happy Tribuwana Wijayatunggadewi carrying the throne, as ranu in Jiwana officially represented Sri Narendra-putera.
He bow in devotion to mother Sri Rajapatni, and adheres Buddha, sprad flower for the lates, father of the king is Sri Kertawardana-raja, both has strong faith for the peace of the country. Father of the king lived in Singasari, as Ratnasambawa adding communal prosperity, persistent, to improve people and country prosperity, skillful to drive priests, wise in every duty.
Daughter of the king was beautiful, and ruled in Daha, outstandingly beautiful, bersandar nam guna, is the aunt of the king, sister of queen of Jiwana, Queen of Daha and Queen of Jiwana are like twin goddess.
Husband of queen Sri Wijayarajasa is from Wengker, handsome like the incarnation of Upendra, famous as scholar, tantamount to king of Singasari, faithful in religion, he was so famous in Java.
Sister of the king of Wilwatikta, are beautiful princess lives in lasem, beautiful princess of Daha, pretty and famous, Indudewi daughter of Wijayarajasa. And the youngest Kertawardana, ruled in Pajang, outstandingly beautiful, daughter of Sri Narpati Jiwana was famous,well known as sister of the king.
Has been crowned as king as planned, skillful husband of queen of Lasem is like king of Matahun, entitled as Rajasawardana was handsome, king and queen praised as Asmara with Pinggala. Sri Singawardana , handsome, nice, young, polite, courageous, entitled as paguhan, he is the husband of queen of pajang, the glorious marriage is like Sanatkumara and Dewi Ida, devoted to king,love others, satisfy the people.
Bhre Lasem descend a beautiful princess Nagarawardani, as the queen of Prince Wirabumi, Queen of Pajang descent Bhre Mataram Sri Wikramawardana, as the incarnation of Hyang Kumara, vice principal of Sri Narendra. The youngest daughter of queen of Pajang ruled Pawanuhan, entitled as Surawardani was still young, beautiful like a drawing, kings of Java each has a kingdom, and Wilwatikta was the place they serve together to Sri Nata.
Floating melodious hymn praising the king, he killed enemies, as sun penetrates mist, gathering countries in his power, rejoice peole like lotus flower, eliminating wicked as kumuda, from all villages in kingdom’s area, tax flowing like water.
King erases mourn of the murba as Satamanyu falling to the earth, punishing wicked as Dewa Yana, gathering wealth as Waruna, spies enter to all places like Hyang Batara Bayu, guarding Pura as Dewi pertiwi, the look is beautiful like moon.
As Hyang Kama appears, interested in the beauty of Pura, all princess and wives, yet The Queen from Wijayarajasa descendant is still the most beautiful one, the most dainty like susuma, that she is worthy to be with the king.
She has a royal princess Kusumawardhani, very gorgeous, very beautiful her eyes are, nice figure, lives in Kabalan, the son in law Sri Wikramawardhana holds law of the country, as god and goddess, they hands meet, nice to look at.
The miraculous of the city : red brick wall, thich and tall, encircles Pura, west entrance is Pura Waktra, faces wide square, belt with trench, brahmastana tree with bodi foot, long lined, tidy in various shapes, that is the waiting room of continuous patrolling guarding paseban.
On the north stands gate with engraved iron door, on the east : stage, the floor is layered with stone, shiny white, on the north, on the south, houses crowd and long, very beautiful, on the south of the street there is a meeting hall where soldiers meet every Caitra.
Great hall Manguntur and Witana hall in the middle, face padang watangan which was wider to 4 directions, the north is paseban for poets and ministers, the east is paseban of priests Siwa Buddha, whose duties are discussing ceremonies in the period of lunar eclipse Palguna for the world safety.
On the east pahoman in cluster of three surround Siva temple, beside is the residence of Wipra Utama, tall and storeyed, faces immolation stage, stands in the western yard, on the north is three levels buddha, the top is engraved, full of flowers when king sacrifices.
Inside, on the south of Manguntur was separated by door, that was the paseban, nice houses flank street westward, between tanjung flower in bloom, farther southwest: stage where cadets roam, and in the middle of the yard stands ,andapa full of chirping birds.
Inside, on the south there is another paseban lengthwise to the second exit door of the Pura, built in stair rise,sectional, each has its own door, all halls have strong structures and strong pillars,the ribs board is perfect, soldiers alternated, alternated to guard door, while chit chatting.
This is the attendees: pengalasan, the amount is uncountable, Nyu gading Janggala-Kediri, Panglarang, Rajadewi, Waisangka kapanewon Sinelir, officer Jayengprang Jayagung and representatives of Pareyok Kayu Apu, Gajahan people and many more.
These are the beauty of watangan square : very spacious, ministers and royals, kings assistants in Java, on the front line, high level Bhayangkari on the second line, on the north is palace door, on the south is knights and poets.
On the west, several lengthwise hall to mercudesa, full of workers and assistants of guards officials, further south: there are several rooms,mandapa, and hall for personnel of Sri Narapati in Paguhan, to make formal appearance.
Entering the second door, nestles radiant palace garden, flat and spacious, with beautiful house full of decorated chairs, on the east stands tall high house decorated with kingdom logo, thst was hall to accept guest of Sri Nata in Wilwatikta.