A report written by Nicolaus Engelhard on 28 February 1827 reported that he found temple in Singosari in 1803. It reports 6 statues from this temple, including Durga and Ganesha. He left Agastya as the condition was bad. In 1804, the statues were sent to Holland.
From the report, Singosari area was forest. 17 years later in 1820, D Monnereau found 4 temple buildings nearby Singosari temple including Pradnyaparamitha or Kendedes. JB Jukes visited the temple in 1844 said that one of the remple on the south of Singosari temple was called as Cungkup Putri. Later he considered that Cungkup Putri was the real place of Pradnyaparamitha or Kendedes.
From the reports, Candi Singosari was part of a complex. Later in Pararaton mentioned that there was a sacred building in Singosari where King Kertanegara for tantri ceremony. The comples lies from south to north and possible that Singosari temple is the main temple. Dr Oey Blom said that the comples consists of 9 temples according to sacred building concept in that period. Unfortunately only the main temple left, while the other are gone and changed to settlements, road and sawah that retrace the complex is not easy to do.
From all the temples in SIngosari only agastya statue and pair of Dwarapala located 200 meters west of the temple can still be found on the original location. WHile the other were moved and kept in Nationam Museum Jakarta (Ken dedes), Trowulan (Cumundi) and Leiden ,Holland (Durga, Ganesha, Bhaiwara) and the other are missing.
According to locals, Pradnyaparamita, a statue allegedly resided in Singosari temple was stored in Holland for long time and now is one of collection in National Museum, Jakarta is Kendedes statue, the queen of Singasari and ancestor of Majapahit who was very beautiful, as written in Pararaton and Mula Malurung inscription.
The statue is actually the manifestation of goddess of wisdom and knowledge in Buddha called as Pradnyaparamitha. This statue was the most refine and beautiful statue ever found in Indonesian archaeology. It is 1.26 meters and made of andesit. She sits on a lotus and her both hand creating dharmacakramudra gesture or rotating world wheel. There is decoration of lotus stalk on her left hand and the flower base a holy book. She leans on a beautiful chair based on lotus. Her body is full of ornaments from ankle, tummy, hand, breasts, neck, ears, body to her crown. While her lower body is covered by textile, like batik. What a majestic statue. Probably this was the real picture of princess.
Her hand gesture shows dharmachakramudra or rotating the world wheel or key of cause and effect. This is the typical of Biddhist and as shown on statues in Borobudur. While on the left there is a lotus twin from her left hand. On the lotus tip there is a holy book called Pradnyaparamitha-sutra or the main wisdom.
The creator of the statue made this in detail and very elaborate delineating the mixture of peacefulness and the lul of expression her face in Buddhist gesture in shining jewellery on her body. In Indonesia there is no theory about self portrait on statue, except probably this statue which shows self portrait which shows a goddess with human face and worldly jewellery. Actually this statue is the only statue of self portrait before self portrait concept emerges among experts.
Unfortunately, the real place of this statue is still mystery. Current Singosari temple can not be the place for this statue as Singosari is a Sivaistic temple while Pradnyaparamitha is a Buddhist statue. So it is clear that one of the religious building in SIngosari complex as shown by Engelhard finding in 1827 is not far from Candi Singosari. The complex was not only completed with Hindu temples but also BUddhist as indicated by Pradnyaparamita statue. This is compatible with King Kertanegara, an adherent of Siva-Buddha and Tantra.
Namun demikian belum sepenuhnya benar seandainya patung Pradnyaparamita ini merupakan potret Kendedes. Kakawin Negarakertagama (67 ; 1-2 dan 69 ; 1) menyebutkan bahwa ratu Gayatri didharmakan sebagai Pradnyaparamitha dan candinya disebut Pradnyaparamithapuri. Gayatri adalah salah satu dari 4 putri Kertanegara dan menjadi istri terkasih dari Kertarajasa sang pendiri kerajaan dan dinasti Majapahit. Sementara itu, menurut kitab Pararaton, disebutkan bahwa pendeta Lohgawe yang merupakan penasehat spiritual Ken Arok menyebut Kendedes sebagai Ardhaneswari atau wanita utama dan mengacu pada dewi Parvati yang cantik jelita.
THis statue is probably still stored in Leiden, that it is less recognize. The statue was found by Engelhard in 1827, with other statues.
Though old books in Indis do not have reference regarding the explanation about how perfect this statue is, but the appearance and attribute of this statue is one of Siva manifestation in scary form and called as Bhairawa. He stands on heap of skulls and he squats as if he sits on wold back. He has for hands each holding keris, shot spear, tambour and human skull. He wears long dangling necklace decorated with skull, so are his earrings , left and right arms decorated with skull ornaments.
His mimic and eyes are bulging and his mouth is open shows his canine teeth. This statue shows scary mimic very obviously. He leans on a board with old Javanese alphabets says cakra-cakra. Unfortunately, left part of the board is gone that the real writing can not be revealed.
Jessy Blom and P.H. Port suppose that this statue was located on the south of Singosari temple that now is gone. In pararaton, there is a Purwapatapan where King Kertanegara did Tantri ritual. In their opinion Bhairawa is located in Purwapatapan as written in Gunung Buthak inscription (1924) as Sivabuddhalaya or where Siva-Buddha reside. GF Brummund argues that the building consists of 3 chambers. Parwati (Pradnyaparamitha) is located on the south, Camundi on the north and Bhairawa in the middle. So Bhairawa is flanked by a scary and beautiful goddess.
There is no data for whom this statue made. Yet LC Damais could convince that there are two names .closely related to Bhairawa personification. They are Adityawarman who ruled Sumatra or Kertawardhana later known as husband of Tribhuawatunggadewi and the father of Hayam Wuruk, the glorious king of Majapahit. The real name of Kertawardhana is Cakradhara or Cakresvara.
In 1927, a farmer of Ardimulyo village, north of Sinfosari found and kept a statue. But he orfetn had nightmare and bad luck. As he was afraid that it was because of the statue, he destroyed the statue, but fortunately, a Dutch collector could save it and compiled the statue fragments, though not intact as there were few fragments missing. The statue lied around the yard of Singosari temple but now stored in Trowulan museum. That is Camundi statue. She has 8 hands, flanked by other figures : Ganesha and Bhairawa. On the back, it has inscription 1214 Saka or 1292 says “tatkala kaprastisthan paduka bhatari maka tewek huwus sri maharaja digwijaya ring sakalaloka manuyuyi sakaladwipantara’. Batari Camundi was ordained when Sri Maharaja Kertanegara won in the entire region and conquered other islands (LD Damais)
In Negarakertagama Pupuh 42, : King Kertanegara could be a glorious king as he could conquer Bali, Pahang-Malaysia, Sumatera, Gurun, Bakulapura, Sunda, and Madura. That was the seed of Nusantara. Though there is no primary evidence that those regions were conquered and only symbolical in that period, but Kertanegara ruled Java and Sumatera. Six years before, in 1286, he sent messenger to Sumateta and could erect Amoghapasa there as symbol of Singosari sovereignty in Sumareta. Sumatera king was Mauliawarman was still the king as maharaja yet Kertanegara later entitled as Maharajadiraja.
In old India stories, Markandeya Purana and Matsya Purawa , tell about fight between giants of Asura led by their king Mahisa against gods led by Indra, and finally the giants could defeat the gods troop and they pronounced that they are the ruler of Kahyangan. Brahmaled the loss gods asked Wisnu and Siva favor. They both agreed to help and from the mixture of powerful both main gods, goddess Durga was born. And other gods gave her their weapons that Durga could defeat the giants. Finally Durga fought with Asura who was like cow. She stands on the cow and killed him. But later emerged a small giant from the death cow body, which is the core power of Asura and again Durga could finish it.
Durgamahisasuramardini statue usually is placed on the north of Siva HIndu Temple, and she has 2 to 10 arms, yet commonly she has 8 arms as according to story gods gave her their weapons to fight Mahisa, that in Purana literature the weapons were more than her arms (hands). So sometimes Durga statue sometimes have different weapons with other Durga statues. In Bali, Durga carved holding Balinese kris. But commonly Durga holds same weapons.
In Javanese archaeology, Durga is pictured as she a bit relax after defeating Mahisa and Sura. Fifferent than Durga in India. Position and gesture of Mahis tends to left with bended legs. Mahisa looks like he surrender and as if he is the ride of Durga and not like the enemy of gods which is scary giant in Indian concept.
From Durga statues discovered in Indonesia, Durga statue from Singosari temple is known as the most beautiful and more majestic. This statue is stored in Leiden now. The statue is 1.5 m height and beautifully decorated. Her body , nandi and small giant on the lower left.
Though few parts are gone, but her body and head is still intact. Her crown is very beautiful. She wears anklet, belt, bracelet and earrings. The interesting about this statue is that she wears kemben / bustier and the kemben shows the curve of her body. And her lower body is covered with long textitle decorated with royal attributes. And the most interesting thing is that her textile has batik motive, that probably Batik has been recognized since Singasari period. Other beautiful Durga statue was found in Candi Jawi, now this is kept in Mpu Tantular Museum, Surabaya. Though not as beautiful as that found in Singosari and smaller but this statue is intact.
In India mythology, Ganesha has human body and has elephant head. His ivory is broken and has 4 arms, 2 at the front and 2 at the back. In the mythology, Ganesha rides a mouse, Vighnesvara means destruction blocker. Therefore every time Indian start work, they worship Vighnesvara to avoid disasted and difficulties.
This statue was found by Engelhard in 1827 in Singosari temple and is stored in Leiden. This statue is made of andesit and placed on the east of Singosari temple. The height is 1.3 meters, ganesha looks beautiful and strong. As other Ganesha statue, it has 4 hands holding ax, hanger and upside down skull. He sits on pedestal decorated with 10 skulls.
Ganesha from Singosari temple is the manifestation of King Kertanegara. It has 10 skulls on pedestal as symbol of the ultimate of Kertanegara , 10 mai codes of Buddha called as Paramita : dhana (derma), sila (tata susila), ksanti (sabar), virya (perwira), dyana (samadi), prajna (kebijaksanaan), upaya kausalya (upaya sarana), pradinata (teguh), bala (kekuasaan), and jnyana (pengetahuan).Kertanegara was a religious person knows religion principals. The unique about this Ganesh is that this Ganesha sits with one of his leg creating 90 deg. His head has 3 levels of crown and on top creating stupa as symbol to honor of honor from Kertanegara to Buddha, beside adhered Sivaistic belief.
He has 4 arms, holding coconut skin full of jewellery, coconut skin filled with blood absorbed by his trunk. This is symbol that Singosari was very prosperous and still learns about religion. Other hand holds key and ax. This symbolizes that Kertanegara kept sovereignty of Singosari and destroying enemies. This is as written in Negarakertagama by Prapanca.
By cradha ritual principal held annualy, it is logical that Singosari temple was built after the death of Kertanegara or in the period of Majapahit, not in Singosari period. This can be seen from the back rest of Ganesha statue. On left and right side of Ganesha crown there is a round decoration layered with cornered circle on the outside. In archaeology this pattern is called as sunrise of wilwatika. This decoration was used as official symbol of Majapahit and also as Majapahit period product.
Historian argue that Ganesha is symbol of wisdom or knowledge or the god of happiness. No wonder is Institute Technologi Bandung used Ganesha as symbol.