Menak Jinggo as written in Damarwulan text was an antagonist character, a rebel, and has an ugly face and bad behavior. For Banyuwangi people, this fiction character has been a myth. Fer believe in the story truth, and others considered that the story was made by Blambangan enemy (In the past) for structural plan to kill Blambangan people character by discrediting Blambangan kinh, Minak Jinggo.
Myths are prose narratives which, in the society in which they are told, are considered to be truthful accounts of what happened in the remote past. (Bascom in Joseph Eddy Fontenrose’s The Ritual Theory of Myth). Part of society believe that myth was a reality, some use it as energy source and life spirit by taking example of the myth characters . Banyuwangi folk song, told that Minak Jinggo was a hero in the lyrics, unlike antagonist character as told by the myth.
Damarwulan text has been controversial, not only in Banyuwangi which considered Minak Jinggo as hero in its local myth. There are criticizers doubt Damarwulan text is a story with Majapahit downfall as background. Sanusi Pane, a modern poet, criticized this text. In drama play Sandyakala Ning Majapahit, written in 1933 and published by Balai Pustaka, he did not create Damarwulan as hero but as bad guy and executed.
A HIstorian from Gajahmada University, S Margana, criticized that Damarwulan text in prose or folk song, there are names such as Damarwulan, Menak Jingggo, Kencana Wungu, Logender, Layang Seta and layang Kumitir, Anjasmara, Ranggalawe. And from those names, only Ranggalawe known in history. Ranggalawe was Tuban Regent who was accused to rebel against Majapahit. The names of characters can be used as indication if the story was real or only fiction.
Damarwulan test is allegedly created by Mataram, after several times fail to conquer Blambangan entirely. Though Mataram had once conquered the leader of Blambangan, but Blambangan people did not surrender to Mataram. From this background Mataran official asked poets to write story with Majapahit history background.
From various text about Damarwulan, mostly were written by Mataram people such as Koesoemawardhani, Goesti Raden Adjeng Siti Noeroel Kamaril Ngasarati in Damarwulan Ngarit in Toneelstuk van de Langendrija-Klitik. Abdul Moeis in
Moeis, Abdul, Hikajat Damarwulan in 1950, and Serat Damarwulan by Kandjeng pangeran Harja in 1953.
The writer of Gending Using of Banyuwangi had done protest against the story. Even in Janger story, Banyuwangi traditional drama, Menak Jinggo was delineating as a wise king and loved by his people. The story title was changed to Menak Jinggo Nagih Janji, and the story was not that Damarwulan defeated Menak Jinggo as in Javanese Traditional Drama, Ketoprak. In 1970s, there were 3 Using Folk Song about Menak Jinggo character: Menak Jinggo (Andang CY), Pahlawan Blambangan (Armaya) and Jimat Wesi Kuning (Fatran Abal).
Sapa bain arep takon aran isun Menak Jinggo (If anyone ask, my name is Menak Jinggo)
Lamat-lamat semriwing ring kuping (Subtle pass through the ears)
Nalikane isun kelayung-layung nang gendongan (When i was carried in arms)
Emak_Bapak sing leren-leran ngudang (By mother and father who sang)
Anak isun lanang satria bagus gagak perkasa (My son, handsome and powerful)
Dadio agul-agul sun iring puja lan puji (Be a pride, poured with compliments)
Sapa bain arep takon aran isun Menak Jinggo (If anyone ask, my name is Menak Jinggo)
Isun sing perduli asal isun teko endi (I do not care when i am from)
Embuh lahir nong keratin emboh lahir nong galengan (whether i was born in palace or on ditch)
Emak-Bapak karepe wis sun turuti (I have followed my parents will)
Sun ancep tanggul-tanggul lan umbul-umbul (I have made dike and stick banners)
Sak ubenge tanah Blambangan (Encircling Blambangan)
Sapa bain arep takon aran isun Menak Jinggo (If anyone ask: my name is Menak Jinggo)
Pancen ono pecake tatu ring awak isun (I have scars on my body)
Peningsite tanda bakti nong Raja Majapahit (As evidence of my devotion to Mahapahit King)
Ngukuhaken jejege sengker Blambangan (To strengthen Blambangan)
Sing arep nggisir teka isun mulyaaken Blambangan (To glorify Blambangan)
Syair/lagu : Andang CY/BS Noerdian
Tahun cipta/popular :September 1972/1974
Instrumen pengiring : Angklung
Produksi Rekaman :Sarinande Record Banyuwangi
In Menak Jinggo song, the characters appeared as they were alive, their spirit and fight for justice were real. As the writer wanted to instill patriotism and enliven a character which was discredited all this time and made Banyuwangi youngsters less confident.
In Damarwulan test, Menak Jinggo was an antagonist, has bad behavior, a rebel and takes other’s wife. In Javanese drama, Damarwulan character sometimes shown as limp, ugly face to emphasize that his is a bad guy. Different than in Using folk song.
Though in history there was no Blambangan king named Menak Jinggo, but society accept the oral and written drama story uncomfortably to know Javanese drama show with Damarwulan story. Banyuwangi people believe that this is the work of Mataram.No wonder that this story is popular in central java.
Myth reflects society view. Negative value eroded confident. Though Damarwulan story has been recognized for quiet long time, but new light of positive value of Menak Jinggo in Blambanan folklore at least will recover local’s confident.
Raja gagah hang ganteng rupane (A strong king, who was handsome)
Dedege kukuh njanjang kemerdep klambine (He stood tall with beautiful outfit)
Iku Menak Jinggo pahlawan Blambangan (He was Menak Jinggo, Blambangan hero)
Sakti mondroguno wateke teges terang-terangan (He was powerful and honest)
Kadung ngomong gromsyon nyenengaken (If he spoke happiness yielded)
Mula rakyate akeh hang pada kentelan (That was why his people follow him)
Gede perbawane bisa dipercoyo (He was a trustful person)
Sing gampang nyerah keneng ditiru dienggu tulodo (He was a good example)
Menak Jinggo rame dsadi fitnahan (Menak Jinggo had been maligned)
Dikira arek nganaaken pemberontakan (He was accused of committing rebellion)
Saktemene mung milu takon nang pamane (Actually he just met his uncle)
Apuo gok Kenconowungu hang mangku Ratu (Why Kencono Wungu became a queen)
Lahire perang Majaphit-Blambangan (The beginning of Majapahit-Blambangan war)
Dudu soal sepele mbbela nama lan kehormatan (It was not an easy task to defense a dignity)
Dilakoni agus getih nuntut keadilan (Should be done by blood sweat and tears to gain justice)
Menak Jinggo lila mati kanggo bumi Blambangan (Menak Jinggo was ready to die for Blambangan)
Judul gending : Pahlawan Blambang
Syair/lagu : Armaya/Mahfud Hr.
Tahun cipta/popular :1973/1974
Interumen pengiring :Angklung
Produksi rekaman :Ria Record Banyuwangi
Pahlawan Blambangan is similar to other folk song of Menak Jinggo, only in this song, Menak Jinggo was delineated as a quiet different to Damarwulan text. He was handsome,brave, wise, polite and loved by his people. This song also emphasizes that Menak Jinggo was not a rebel and he was maligned for doing so. According to the song writer, Armaya, there was a war between Majapahit and Blambangan, when Blambangan was led by Adipati Bhre Wirabhumi in 1404-1406.
According to historian, Damarwulan test is a fiction with setting of Paregreg war or Pangeran Sadeng Rebellion. Though Damarwulan is fiction, common people believe there was a conflict between Majapahit and Blambangan and Mataram used this for its sole interest.
Wesi kuning jimat Blambangan (Wesi Kuning, Weapon of Blambangan)
Mandraguna sapa hang duwe (It was powerful, who owned it)
Menak Jinggo satria nyata (IT was Menak Jinggo the true knight)
Sakti adil kanggo negoro (Who was rule with justice)
Ayo kabeh lare Blambangan (Come on all Blambangan younsters)
Nyang endi bain siro ning dunya (Wherever you are in this world)
Enggonen jimat wesi kuning (Use Wesi Kuning weapon)
Uripono jiwa satria (Enliven the knight spirit)
Sing gampang niru Menak Jinggo (Use Menak Jinggo as model)
Tekade atos koyo wesi (His will was like iron)
Tingkah polahe jujur lan joyo (He was honest and victorious)
Kaya kuninge barang hang aji (As victorious as his weapon)
Aja mundur satria Blambangan (Do not fall back Blambangan knights)
Dung iku kanggo keadilan ( For justice)
Paran maning kanggone nusa (Moreover for kingdom/ country)
Ikhlasno nyawa lan raganiro (Be ready your body and soul)
Judl gending : Jimat Wesi Kuning
Syair/lagu : Fatrah Abal/ BS Noerdian
The writer of the above song did not feature about bad or good of Menak Jinggo character. He tried to elaborate Wesi Kuning weapon of Menak Jinggo. He wants to give positive side of Menak Jinggo and it was not easy to be like Menak Jinggo with his sacrifices, nationalism and struggle. THe writer also asked young generation of Banyuwangi to have strong spirit to sparkle Banyuwangi.
From the three songs, we can ger general picture of Banyuwangu myth about Menak Jinggo. The writers let Menak Jinggo live in society’s heart, yet giving spirit of new positive description about the king of Blambangan. They reject negative description about Menak Jinggo. In 1984, Banyuwangi givt and humanitarian rejected Damarwulan movie. As though the setting was in Blambangan or Banyuwangi, but there was no scene taken in Blambangan. ANd there was no consultation about Damarwulan myth in Banyuwangi society.