Panarukan, The Escape of Dyah Ranawijaya, King of Kediri
There is an interesting data about this kingdom though. There was an event happened in the end of 16th century, half century after Paregreg, that was the assault of Demak troop to Daha, Kediri kingdom. In that period, Kediri was the main kingdom after it could attack Majapahit.
According Muljana (1986), Demak (Islam) troop attacked Tuban in 1527, and then attacked Daha, capital of Kediri in the same year. King of Kediri, Girindrawardhana Dyah Ranawijaya (Idenyified as Bhatara Wijaya or Brawijaya character) escaped to Panarukan, while Kediri fell to Demak. Dyah Ranawijaya defeated Bhre Kertabhumi, King of Majapahit in 1478. This attack was for revenge purpose as his father, Suraprabhawa Sang Singawikramawardhana was assaulted by Bhre Kertabhumi, that made Suraprabhawa moved to Daha, Kediri. This opinion is supported by Petak inscription which says that Girindrawardhana fought against Majapahit more than once.
Serta Kanda text mentions that Dyah Ranawijaya, after the fell of Daha to Demak, ran to Bali, according to Muljana could not be proved well by historical data. Dyah Ranawijaya escaped to Panarukan (currently Situbondo), instead. Panarukan was a busy harbor and since 14th century was one of most important Ship base for Majapahit. Ranawijaya advent to Panarukan was like the continuance of Kediri. based on Dutch view, panarukan kingdom was identified as Blambangan.
According Information from Portuguese, there was a messenger of Hindu Kingdom in Panarukan to Malaka in 1528, a year after Ranawijaya attacked by Demak. The messenger intended to get support from Portuguese to stop Islam influence in Java. Other evidence was that Panarukan (was part) of Blambangan and the murder of Sultan Trenggana , the 3rd king of Demak in 1546. There was no record Blambangan capital moved from panarukan to more east area.
When Demak expansion was ongoing under Sultan Trenggana, in part of East Java had been conquered. pasuruan was conquered in 1545 and since then it became important power in eastern tip of East Java. Yet, Demak effort to conquer Panarukan faced constraints as the kingdom rejecting Islam. Moreover in 1546, Sultan Trenggaha himself was murdered in nearby Panarukan after three weeks could not go through Panarukan. When Pasuruan could be controlled, Blambangan position was recessive. In 1601, Blambangan capital could be seized by Pasuruan by the assistance of Demak. Blambangan then was influenced by Islam culture and teachings. The capital was then moved southward to Muncar.
In the period of Mataram sultanate, Blambangan ruler again stated the region as independence. Mataram failed to conquered Blambangan, this caused Blambangan (and Banyuwangi in general) was never part of Central Java culture. Therefore, until today Banyuwangi has its own language, different than Javanese language. Balinese influence is more prominent on its arts and culture.
From those description, Blambangan derived from Panarukan, not from Eastern palace in Lumajang, the remain of Arya Wiraraja or palace in the period of Paregreg war. Yet, There are other cpnsiderations to determine wether Pacarukan was the beginning of Blambangan Kingdom.
To be continued