Blambangan Kingdom, East Java, Indonesia (PART 2)

When Raden Wijaya could establish Majapahit in 1293, Arya Wiraraja was given a title Rakryan Mantri Arya Wiraraja Makapramuka. But in 1296 Wiraraja was not in charge anymore as in Penanggungan inscription, his name was not mentioned. This was probably because Wiraraja’s son, Ronggolawe, revolted and he was killed that Raden Wijaya did not include him in his officials. This made Wiraraja hurt and then resigned and asked for his spare of area once Raden Wijaya promised when he helped him defeating Jayakatwang. On 1294, Raden Wijaya granted his request and he gave Wiraraja the eastern part of Majapahit, with capital in Lamajang (currently Lumajang).

According to Blambangan chronicle, Lumajang was given to Arya Wiraraja was a forest, including Mount Bromo (Mt Brahma) to the periphery of East Java, and even to Bali Strait (”Wit prekawit tanah Lumajang seanteron ipun kedadosaken tanah Blambangan”). According to Blambangan test, Arya Wiraraja reigned in Blambangan since 1294-1301. He was replaced by his son, Arya Nambi in 1301 till 1331. After Nambi killed bu political matter in 1331, Blambangan has no king until 1352. Sira Dalem Sri Bhima Chili Kapakisan, the oldest brother of Dalem Sri Bhima Cakti in Pasuruan, Dalem Sri Kapakisan in Sumbawa and Dalem Sri Kresna Kapakisan in Bali.

Babad Raja Blambangan (chronicle) fits what is written in Pararaton. In 1316, Nambi, one of loyal follower of Raden Wijaya, and also as the first Patih Amamangkubhumi Majapahit, rebelled in the period of Jayanegara, as written in Pararaton. According to other text, Kidung Sorandaka, tells that Nambi rebellion was after the death of his father Pranajaya, While accordingto Kidung Harsawijaya, Nambi’s father was Wiraraja. Pararaton tells that Nambi died in his defense fortress in Rabut Buhyabang village, swarmed over by Jabung Trewes, Lembu Peteng, and Ikal-ikalan Bang. Previously, the fortress in Gending and Pejarakan built by Nambi could be destroyed by Majapahit. Finally Nambi and his family died in the war. According to Negarakertagama, Jayanegara led the mission to silence Nambi rebellion. In that incident, Nambi was in Lumajang and favored by East Majapahit troop, from Wiraraja’s area. Yet there was no record if Nambi was still alive or not in that event.

From the explanation above, Blambangan existence information if very limited as Blambangan name was not mentioned on the sources.

Paregreg was was broken on 1406, between West Palace and East Palace in Majapahit area. In Pararaton, foster father and grandfather of Bhre Wirabhumi’s wife was Bhre Wengker, Wijayarajasa (husband of Rajadewi), built a new palace in Pamotan and entitled as Bharata Paremeswara ring Pamotan. Bharata parameswara was also the father in law of Hayam Wuruh as his daughter Paduka Sori married with him. After Bharata Parameswara died in 1398, palace in Pamotan was given to Bhre Wirabhumi.

Pararaton information and Ming dynasty information are compatible. The chronicle from China says that in 1403, in Java there was a Western Palace and Eastern Palace, and both were in conflict. On that year Bhre Wirabhumi, the eastern palace king sent his messenger to China to get China’s recognition. This made Wikramawardhana, the western palace king, upset and he cancelled his priesthood since 1400. When he did his duty as priest, it was his wife, Kusumawardhani, who ruled the palace. Eastern Kingdom ruler as mentioned in Ming chronicle was Pamotan king, Bhre Wirabhumi. Yet is Eastern Kingdom in Bhre Wirabhumi period was same as term of Eastern Palace in Arya Wiraraja period?

In 1403, Yung Lo Caesar of China sent messenger to Java to announce that he was the caesar of China. The relationship between China and Java was in good term, moreover when Wikramawardhana received silver-golden stamp from Yung Lo caesar. In return Wikramawardhana sent his messenger to China with gifts. Seems silver-golden stamps made Bhre Wirabhumi sent his messenger to China, with special intend for recognition from caesar of China. Official recognition from China caesar toward Wirabhimi made Wikramawardhana who was meditating upset. He then ruled again. 3 years later in 1406, Eastern and Western Kingdom asked other Majapahit officials to support them.

Pararton recorded that Paregreg war (gradually war), berween Wikramawardhana-Bhre Wirabumi was in Saka year of …… nada loro anahut wulan or 1328 Saka (1406). After Wikramawardhana could conquered Eastern Kingdom, Bhre Wirabhumi escaped by boat. But Bhra Narapati Raden Gajah could after him, he was decapitated and then his body was brought to Majapahit and dedicated to Bhra Hyang WIsesa. Bhre Wirabhumi’s head then planted in Lung village. A temple was built on that year in 1406, called Grisapura.

This was began from the disagreement of Bhre WIrabhumi, the son of Sri Rajasanagara or Hayam Wuruk from his concubine, for the suggestion of Suhita, daughter of Kusumawardhani (Hayam Wuruk’s daughter) with Wkramawardhana, to be the ruler of Majapahit. Previously in 1389 Wikramawardhana, the son in law and nephew of Hayam Wuruk was inaugurated as king, and after reigned for 12 years, Wikramawardhana resigned and became priest. Suhita was appointed by Wikramawardhana to replaced him and Wirabhimi disagree with this. Wirabhumi, though he was the son from a concubine, felt that he deserve the throne of Majapahit as he was the only son of Hayam Wuruk. He saw Suhita did not deserve the throne as Suhita as she was the daughter of Kusumawardhani. According to Negarakertagama, Bhre Wirabhumi married to Nagarawardhani, while according to pararaton he married to Bhre Lasem or Indudewi, the niece of Hayam Wuruk, and the daughter of Rajadewi (Rajasaduhitendudewi). Rajadewi in Negarakertagama is identical to Bhre Daha in pararaton, was the aunt of Hayam Wuruk.

After the death of Bhre Wirabhumi, Bhre Daha, the foster mother of Bhre Wirabhumi, Rajasaduhitendudewi, was trafficked by Hyang Wisesa to Kedaton Kulon, Majapahit. There was no record who the predecessor of Wirabhumi, the ruler if Daha. Pararaton only tells that in 1359 Saka (1437), the ruler of Daha was Jayawardhani Dyah Jayeswari, the youngest daughter of Bhre Pandan Salas.

After Paregreg war, Majapahit throne was held by Wikramawardhana until 11 years later. In 1349 Saka (1427), WIkramawardhana died and Majapahit throne was given to Suhita. After Bhre Wirabhumi died, Eastern Kingdom was united to Western Kingdom. But on the other side other regions outside Java were detaching from Majapahit.

From the description above, Negarakertagama from the 14th century does not mention at all about Blambangan, the region of Arya Wiraraja. As well with pararaton written in the 15th century, does not mention Eastern palace for Bhre Wirabhuni region. Blambangan term as a kingdom appeared in the later centuries, in 18th century in the period of Mataram Islam and 2 centuries after Paregreg period.

There is an exemption, in Bujangga Manik text, written in the 15th century, there was a place salled Balungnungan located on the eastern tip of east Java as Hindu pilgrimage .

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To be continued…