Kediri Kingdom is a big kingdom in East Java and established in 12th century. This kingdom was part of old Mataram (Hindu Mataram). The capital was on the bank of Brantas River which was a sailing route in that period.
Kediri KIngdom was formed from Kataram Kingdom that was split by King Airlangga (1000-1049). This was due to avoiding conflict between his harems sons. There was no detail evidence how many parts Mataram Kingdomdevided. In a chronicle was written that it was devided into 4 parts. But further only known two kingdoms, Kediri or Panjalu and Jenggala. Samarawijaya as the legal heir of the kingdom got the old capital, Dahanaputra and his kingdom was then changed to be Pangjalu or known as Kediri.
Kediri evolved and became great kingdom with capital was in Daha while Jenggala was getting unpopular. It is estimated that Jenggala was conquered by Kediri. Nevertheless, Jenggal disappeared because there was no inscription left or not-yet-found inscription made by Jenggala. Kediri Kingdom fell when King Kertajaya (1185-1222) had conflict with a priest and this situation was used by Tunggul Ametung.
But later Tunggul Ametung was murdered by Ken Arok and on the former Kediri, Ken Arok built Singasari Kingdom. When Singasari was reigned by Kertanegara (1268-1292), KIng of Kediri co-op with Madura Regent and attacked Kertanegara in 1292. Jayakatwang rebuilt Kediri.
After defeating Kertanegara, Kediri resurge under Jayakatwang but then defeated by Raden Wijaya, the nephew of King Kertanegara, with the help of Kubilai Khan Troop. Mongol came to Java to revenge King Kertanegara that hurt Kubilai Khan messenger.
Govenment system of Kediri is like other past kingdoms in Java, there were numerous power switches.
1.Shri Jayawarsa Digjaya Shastraprabhu
He was the first king of Kediri according inscription from date back 1104. He called himself as the manifestation of Wisnu.
Id the second king of Kediri and known as Sri Maharajarake Sirikan Shri Kameshwara Sakalabhuwanatushtikarana Sarwwaniwaryyawiryya Parakrama Digjayottunggadewa, but more popular as Kameshwara I (1115 – 1130 ). Kediri badge was skull with tusks known as Candrakapala. In his period, Mpu Darmaja wrote Samaradana, where king was praised as the manifestation of god of Kama, and that the capital was admired by the whole world, called Dahana. His queen was Shri Kirana from Jenggala.
Is the 3rd king of Kediri, known as Shri Maharaja Shri Kroncarryadipa Handabhuwanapalaka Parakramanindita Digjayotunggadewanama Shri Gandra.. HIs inscription was from date back i181. He was the most popular king of Kediri and brought Kediri to its glorious days. He was a politic leader and popular for his prophecies that were collected in a book called Jongko Joyoboyo. King Jayabaya supported culture, arts, spiritual and material.
As a religious king and respected culture, King Sarwaswera held his principal ‘TAT WAM ASI’, means ‘that is you’ or all creatures was you. His life goal was to mokhsa.
The meaning of his name is fortress of truth, the king was always true and fair to his people. As a religious king, he had principal SAD KAMA MURKA means ‘6 enemies inside human’. They are kroda (anger), moha (confusion), kama (lust), loba (greed), mada (drunk), masarya (jealousy).
Srengga Kertajaya was a hard worker, when he reigned his people lived in peace, prosperous.
Kertajaya was the last king of Kediri. He was very caring to his people and known for his 4 principles : darma, arta, kama, moksa.
Kediri fell because of conflict with Brahmana. They considered Kertajaya broke religion for people were asked to worship him as god. Brahmana asked protection from Ken Arok, Timapel akuwu. In 1222, in Ganter village, Ken Arok defeated Kertajaya, and marked the end of Kediri Kingdom.