Candi Canggal is also known as Candi Gunung Wukir, located at Canggal village, Salam, Magelang. This Hindu site is located on hill peak, where also found Canggal inscription, oldest inscription that explained a bit about Old Mataram civilization.
Canggal inscription was written in 732 by Sanjaya Dynasty that built the temple to worship Siva. The worship of Siva can be seen from the lingga, yoni and nandi. Date when the sacred place like candi made is considered as the establishment date of a kingdom. In Canggal inscription mentioned that Sanjaya is the founder of this kingdom or known as Rakai Mataram, as the Kingdom he reigned. Initially, Mataram was a small kingdom, and the capital was in Medang Bhumi Mataram (this place is currently not known yet)
Candi Gunung Wukir has one main temple faces east and 3 perwara temple. Perwara temple faces to the main temple and there is Nandi statue inside each perwara temple. On left and right sideof Perwara Temple were estimated having Angsa and Garuda statuary, but those statues are gone. None of the buildings in the compound are intact. The main temple is only floor and a yoni left. From the size, this temple is estimated as big as Candi Sambisari. Around the temple there are stone blocks, no statues. Not far from the main temple located is a stone mortar that was found nearby river under the hill where the temple located.
Spring was an important thing for a temple as water was considered as holy. A perfect site for a temple should be be nearby lake, sea or river. If there is no water nearby, a pond should be made in front of temple. Therefore, mortar stone was made as water jug.
Canggal inscription found in the temple site was written in Pallawa letter with candransangkala Cruti Indriyasa (654 Saka or 732 ) in Sanskrit language, with 12 lines :
Line 1 : Lingga was made by King Syailendra on Sthirangga hill 654 Saka (732)
Line 2-6 : Praise Brahma, Wisnu and Siva. There are 3 verses for Siva.
Line 7 : About the soil and nature of Java Island that is fertile, rich of paddy, gold mines, rivers, forest and elephant.
Line 8-9 : Praise to gentlr King Sanna.
Line 10-12 : Sanjaya is the predecessor of King Sanna, the son of Sahanna (sister of King Sanna), a brave and well repected king for he wrote book, having ocean belt, and mountain chest, people live in peace, and Dewi Kali could not do anything to the kingdom.
Canggal inscription is the biggest inscription in Indonesia, 1 meter long made of andesite. On the lower left is broken, the upper part is in accolade shape with padma or lotus decoration, the symbol of sacredness.